In August 1991 the Kyrgyz republic was formed after the Kyrgyz Soviet Republic declared independence from the Soviet Union. Originally a parliamentary system was used however as the president took greater power between 1993-2007 it became a de facto presidential structure. However, since 2010 it has reverted back to a parliamentary system when a new constitution was created.
The current structure is that of a parliamentary representative democratic republic.
In this structure the President is head if state. While the government is led by the Prime Minister, the government exercises executive power. While legislative power falls under both the parliament and government. The constitution allows for an independent judiciary, although the government prosecutors office is seen to have an influence over the wider judiciary. The legal courts are formed on a local, municipal and regional courts, which all fall under the Supreme Court.
Executive Positions & incumbents
Current President: Almazbek Atambayev
The President is elected every 6 years in a popular vote. They are only allowed to stay for one six-year term.
Left; Incumbent President Almazbek Atambayev, since 2011
Current President: Sooronbay Jeenbekov
The Prime Minister is chosen by parliament, who is then approved by the president. When one party fails to get a majority the president will push for one of the parties to form a coalition.
Left; Incumbent Prime Minister Sooronbay Jeenbekov, since April 2016
First deputy prime minister: Tayyrbek Sarpashev
Deputy prime ministers: Valeriy Dil & Abdyrakham Mamataliev
Agriculture: Taalaibek Aydaraliev
Defence: Abibilla Kudayberdiev
Economy & competition policy: Temir Sariev
Emergency situations: Kupatbek Boronov
Energy & industry: vacant
Finance: Olga Lavrova
Foreign affairs: Erlan Abdyldayev
Internal affairs: Melis Turganbayev
Justice: Almambet Shykmamatov
Labour, employment & migration: Aliyasbek Alimkulov
Transport & communications: Kalykbek Sultanov
Head of National Security: Bursurmankul Tabaldiev
Acting central bank chairman: Tolkunbek Abdygulov
The legislative branch of the government is formed by an elected unicameral chamber called the Jogorku Kenesh.
The chamber is formed of 120 seats which each incumbent elected for a five-year term. The candidates are picked by proportional representation from central party lists. This recent change has occurred in an attempt to stop a repeat of violence that occurred around local elections. However, each party has to get over 7% of the vote nationally, in addition they have to achieve more than 0.7% in all regions and both the cities of Bishkek and Osh.